ISSN: 2455-815X
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology
Research Article       Open Access      Peer-Reviewed

The impacts of poverty on hunger: An examination of the relationship between socioeconomic status and food insecurity

Upasana Singh*

BA LLB, 2nd Year Student of Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India
*Corresponding author: Upasana Singh, BA LLB, 2nd Year Student of Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India, Tel: 6201583381; E-mail:
Received: 13 May, 2023 | Accepted: 15 June, 2023 | Published: 16 June, 2023

Cite this as

Singh U (2023) The impacts of poverty on hunger: An examination of the relationship between socioeconomic status and food insecurity. Int J Agric Sc Food Technol 9(2): 041-043. DOI: 10.17352/2455-815X.000190

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© 2023 Singh U. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Hunger is a persistent global problem affecting billions of people worldwide, particularly those living in poverty and developing countries. Research work relates to experimental research work on the causes and effects of hunger and proposes potential solutions to address the problem. Poverty, conflict, natural disasters, climate change, and gender inequality are major drivers of hunger. Hunger leads to malnutrition, which impairs physical and cognitive development, reduces economic productivity, and undermines social stability. Addressing the underlying causes of hunger through policies that promote economic growth, sustainable agriculture, access to education and healthcare, social protection programs, and conflict resolution can create a world where everyone has access to adequate and nutritious food. By implementing a comprehensive and integrated approach, we can reduce hunger and ensure that it is no longer a barrier to economic and social development.

This research was done to find out the solution to this issue. In the research work, I have studied data and analyzed it for the solutions. I have tried to present all the above concepts in a lucid way so as present the related concept in an effective manner.


Hunger is a persistent global problem that affects billions of people worldwide. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)1 of the United Nations, over 820 million people worldwide are currently undernourished, with the majority living in developing countries. Hunger is a moral and humanitarian issue and a significant impediment to economic development and social stability [1,2]. This research paper aims to explore the causes and effects of hunger and possible solutions to the problem.

  1. (last visited on 25th May, 2023)
Global wheat production by Country visualisation (2000–2020)

Top 10 Countries for wheat production.

According to data from The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), the majority of the world’s wheat output comes from just a small number of countries, despite the fact that more than 80 distinct nations produce wheat.

Taking into account the total yield in tonnes from 2000 to 2020, the following are the top 10 nations in the world for growing wheat Figure 1.

For millions of people worldwide, wheat is a staple food [3-6].

Wheat is the second most produced cereal worldwide and the third most produced for human use, behind only rice and maize (maize). Additionally, given the significance of wheat in the world food system, any adverse effects on big producers, such as droughts, wars, or other situations, may have an effect on the entire planet.

Which nations are the biggest wheat producers? The breakdown of the past 20 years’ worth of worldwide wheat production by nation is shown in this graphic by Kashish Rastogi.

The following table lists the wheat volumes in million metric tonnes. The following is a list of all nations with annual average production of at least 2 million metric tonnes Figure 2.

Causes of hunger

The causes of hunger are complex and multifaceted. One of the main drivers of hunger is poverty. Poor people often lack the resources to buy adequate food and access healthcare, education, and clean water. Conflicts, natural disasters, and climate change are also significant drivers of hunger, as they disrupt food production and distribution systems. Moreover, gender inequality and discrimination are also major causes of hunger, as women and girls often face greater food insecurity and are more vulnerable to malnutrition Figure 3.

The 2022 GHI finds that current progress against hunger has mostly halted. The situation has gotten worse in numerous nations and regions. In fact, the prevalence of undernourishment, one of the GHI’s key indicators, reveals that the proportion of individuals who don’t regularly have access to enough calories is rising, with as many as 828 million undernourished in 2021 [8-10].

Effects of hunger

Hunger has severe consequences for individuals, communities, and nations. Hunger leads to malnutrition, which impairs physical and cognitive development and increases susceptibility to diseases. Malnourished children are more likely to suffer from stunted growth, cognitive impairment, and reduced immune function, leading to poor educational outcomes and reduced economic productivity. Hunger also undermines social stability, fuels conflict, and exacerbates poverty.

Solutions to hunger

To effectively address hunger, a comprehensive approach is needed that addresses the underlying causes of the problem. The following are some potential solutions:

  1. Address poverty and inequality by implementing policies that promote economic growth and reduce income disparities.
  2. Promote sustainable agriculture and rural development by investing in smallholder farmers, improving agricultural productivity, and supporting rural infrastructure.
  3. Improve access to education and healthcare, particularly for women and girls, to reduce vulnerability to hunger and malnutrition.
  4. Strengthen social protection programs, including cash transfers, food subsidies, and school feeding programs, to provide a safety net for the most vulnerable populations.
  5. Address the root causes of conflicts and displacement, which are major drivers of hunger and food insecurity.a


Hunger is a complex and multifaceted problem that requires a comprehensive and integrated approach to address. While progress has been made in reducing global hunger rates in recent years, much work remains to be done. By addressing the underlying causes of hunger and implementing effective solutions, we can create a world where everyone has access to adequate and nutritious food, and where hunger is no longer a barrier to economic and social development.

  1. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (2021) the State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021. Rome: FAO.
  2. International Food Policy Research Institute (2021) Global Hunger Index 2021. Washington, DC: IFPRI.
  3. World Food Programme (2021) Hunger and Undernutrition Fact Sheet. Rome: WFP.
  4. United Nations Development Programme (2021) Human Development Report 2021. New York: UNDP.
  5. FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP, WHO. (2021) The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021: Transforming food systems for food security, improved nutrition and affordable healthy diets for all. Rome: FAO.
  6. Godfray HC, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L, Lawrence D, Muir JF, Pretty J, Robinson S, Thomas SM, Toulmin C. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science. 2010 Feb 12;327(5967):812-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1185383. Epub 2010 Jan 28. PMID: 20110467.
  7. Fanzo J, Davis C, McLaren R, Choufani J. Building a resilient and sustainable food system through innovation: the role of food biodiversity and diversified diets. Agriculture & Food Security. 2020; 9(1): 1-14.
  8. Devereux S, Sabates-Wheeler R. Hunger and Public Action. Routledge. 2021; 28.
  9. Von Grebmer K, Bernstein J, Patterson F, Wiemers M, Ní Chléirigh C. Global Hunger Index: One Decade to Zero Hunger. Bonn: Welthungerhilfe and Concern Worldwide. 2020.
  10. Garrett JL, Ruel MT, Cohen MJ. The poverty–hunger nexus in Asia: A review of the evidence. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Discussion Paper. 1999.

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